nino axvlediani


   saqarTvelos gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis arqeologiuri kulturebi

  da qronologia-periodizaciis  sakiTxi



kavkasiisa da kerZod, saqarTvelos gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis Zeglebis qronologia-periodizaciis da arqeologiuri kulturebis problemebze araerT mkvlevars gamouTqvams Tavisi Sexeduleba.


arqeologiuri kvleva-Ziebis sawyis etapze, im droisaTvis aRmoCenil arqeologiur Zeglebs: samTavros, yobanis, redkinis banakis, lelvaris samarovnebs da yazbegis ganZs, gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba hqondaT aRniSnuli sakiTxebis kvlevaSi. Aam Zeglebis pirveli mkvlevarebi: g. filimonovi, a. uvarovi, fr. Bbaierni, r. virxovi, ern. Santri, J. de morgani xelTarsebuli masalis simciris miuxedavad, evraziis Zeglebis gaTvaliswinebiT, akeTebdnen sakmaod gabedul da ZiriTadad swor daskvnebs [Филимонов  Г.  1878, Уварова П. 1900, Bayern Fr. 1885, Virchov R. 1883,  Chantre  Ern.  1886, Morgan   J.1889].


dasaxelebul mkvlevarTa mier gamoTqmuli mosazrebebis didi nawili dRemde inarCunebs samecniero mniSvnelobas. kerZod, im droisaTvis cnobili Zeglebis daTariReba brinjaodan rkinis xanaze gardamavali periodiT Tu kerZod rkinis xaniT; Aam Zeglebis sinqronizacia halStatis da vila-novas ZeglebTan da maTi daTariReba ZiriTadad Zv.w. II aTaswleulis II naxevriT da I aTaswleulis I naxevriT.


saqarTvelos gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis Zeglebis  kvlevas seriozuli safuZveli Seuqmna b. kuftinis, g. nioraZis, al. kalandaZis, g. lomTaTiZis, t. CubiniSvilis, g. gobejiSvilis, o. jafariZis, T. miqelaZis, d. qoriZis, e. gogaZis, r. abramiSvilis, k. ficxelauris naSromebma [Куфтин Б. 1941, nioraZe g. 1931, kalandaZe a. 1949:259-287, lomTaTiZe g. 1974, CubiniSvili t. 1957, gobejiSvili g. 1952, jafariZe o. 1950:35-87, iqve:112-118; miqelaZe T. 1974, qoriZe d. 1965, gogaZe e. 1971,   abramiSvili r. 1957:116-139; abramiSvili r. 1961:291-381; abramiSvili r. 1977, ficxelauri k. 1965, ficxelauri k. 1959:109-118; ficxelauri k. 1973].


kavkasiaSi pirveli diferencirebuli qronologiuri sistema samTavros samarovnis masalebis safuZvelze  aRmosavleT saqarTvelos gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis ZeglebisTvis SemuSavda [abramiSvili r. 1957:116-139 (qarTul enaze), Abramishvili   R. 2003:12-26 (inglisur enaze)].

amave periodis aRmosavleT saqarTvelos ZeglebisTvis r. abramiSvilis sistemisgan gansxvavebuli qronologiuri skala aago k. ficxelaurma [ficxelauri k. 1973].  wlebis manZilze abramiSvilisa da ficxelauris sistemebis irgvliv warmoebulma dialogma mniSvnelovnad Seuwyo xeli gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis arqeologiuri Zeglebis qronologiuri urTierTmimarTebis sworad warmodgena-gansazRvras.


dReisaTvis AaRmosavleT  saqarTvelos gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis Zeglebis daTariRebisTvis ramdenime qronologiuri skalaa SemuSavebuli [abramiSvili r. 1957, baramiZe m. 1965, ficxelauri k 1973, sadraZe v. 2002, ramiSvili a. 2004]. AamaTgan ZiriTadia erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebul safuZvelze agebuli ori qronologiuri sistema (abramiSvili,  ficxelauri), romelTa bazazec aigo yvela danarCeni.

mogvianebiT, SemuSavda samxreT kavkasiis gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis Zeglebis unificirebuli qronologiuri skala [abramiSvili r. 1978], riTic dasrulda am regionis gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis problemebis kvlevis kidev erTi etapi.


imis gamo, rom gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis keramika konservatulia da didxans inarCunebs formebs, is naklebad emorCileba qronologiur danawevrebas.  keramikuli masala gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos qronologiuri sistemis agebisas, magram masze dayrdnobiT qronologiuri sistemis ageba Secdomebis   safuZveli  xdeba. aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT,  qvemoT, arqeologiur kulturebsa da maT qronologiur urTierTmimarTebaze msjeloba warmarTulia r. abramiSvilis qronologiuri sistemis mixedviT, romelic brinjaos metalurgiis ganviTarebas emyareba.


CvenTvis saintereso periodSi yvelaze swraf da gadaudebel progress sabrZolo iaraRi saWiroebs. im droisaTvis xelCarTul brZolaSi yvelaze met progress maxvili ganicdis, romlis ganviTarebaSic araerTi TvalsazrisiT  gadamwyvet rols asrulebs satevari.

satevar-maxvilebis ganviTarebiT kargad edevneba Tvali spilenZ-brinjaos damuSavebis winsvlas da amdenad SefardebiT qronologias. garda amisa, sabrZolo iaraRi garkveul suraTs gvaZlevs im drois politikur erTeulze, radgan maxvilis gaCena didad aris gapirobebuli misi mflobeli sazogadoebis socialuri TvalsazrisiT ganviTarebis maRali doniT.


maxvili warmoadgens dawinaurebuli sazogadoebis maRali fenis warmomadgenlis erTgvar insignias. maxvili imis mauwyebelia, rom misi damamzadebeli sazogadoeba metalurgiis ganviTarebis sakmaod maRal doneze dgas da is kargad icnobs cxens. Mmaxvilis mflobeli uTuod unda iyos garkveuli regionis mflobeli da misi aRmoCena ZiriTadad unda emTxveodes mflobelis politikur erTeuls. Aam nivTis gavrcelebis mixedviT, misi arsebobis dros, SedarebiT zustad SeiZleba SemoisazRvros arqeologiuri kulturis teritoriuli sazRvrebi.

maxvili ZiriTadad momdinereobs samarxeuli inventaridan. bunebrivia vigulisxmoT, rom ama Tu im politikuri gaerTianebis warCinebuli piri ikrZaleboda im sazRvrebSi, romelzec mas garkveuli uflebebi hqonda. aseve bunebrivia vigulisxmoT, rom maxvili ar SeiZleboda gamxdariyo Cveulebrivi yidva-gayidvis, gaCuqebis an sxva raime formiT gasxvisebis sagani. SesaZlebelia vivaraudoT, rom maxvili sxva eTnikuri Tu politikuri jgufis warmomadgenelTan mxolod Zaladobis Sedegad SeiZleboda moxvedriliyo.


amasTan erTad,  SesaZlebelia da unda gairkves sxva kulturis ra teritoria eWira maxvilis mflobels da es floba riT iyo gamowveuli -  imiT, rom man daipyro es teritoria, Tu droebiT uWiravs is misTvis saWiro meurneobis (mesaqonleobis) gamo. Ggarkveuli teritoriis dakaveba SesaZloa xdeboda imitomac, rom gadaeketaT momTabareTa maTze Setevis SesaZlebloba. SesaZloa, amiT unda aixsnas daRestnis [Крупнов Е.1960, sur.41], zemo imereTis [qoriZe d. 1965, sur.18] da afxazeTis teritoriaze e.w. qedabekuri maxvilebis aRmoCenis faqti (inaxeba saqarTvelos erovnul muzeumSi #5-49:1-5).


saWiroa gairkves, Tu riT aris gapirobebuli is faqti, rom kavkasiis arqeologiur kulturebs Soris, gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis mTel monakveTze, maxvilebi yvelaze metad gavrcelebulia centralur amierkavkasiaSi da ramdenadme mis samxreT- aRmosavleT regionSi (TaliS-lenqorani). zoggan ki, magaliTad, kolxur da yobanur kulturebSi saerTod ar gvxvdeba; riT iyo gapirobebuli centralur amierkavkasiaSi erTmaneTTan genetikurad dakavSirebuli satevar-maxvilebis gavrceleba Zv. w. II aTaswleulis Sua xanebidan Zv. w. I aTaswleulis Sua xanebis CaTvliT; riT iyo gapirobebuli is, rom erTi tipis iaraRi garkveul regionSi adre qreba, xolo garkveul teritoriaze gvian xanebamde SemorCa da a.S. Aam movlenebis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe, qronologiuri sistema kargavs Tavis funqcias, romlis saboloo mizanic aris Tvali gaedevnos Tu ra viTarebaSi da ra tempiT xdeboda drois ama Tu im monakveTSi garkveul teritoriaze sazogadoebis aRmavali xaziT svla, cxadia regresuli movlenebis gaTvaliswinebiT. am da sxva rTul sakiTxebTan aris dakavSirebuli qvemoT ganxiluli gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis arqeologiuri kulturebis problemebi.


kavkasiis  teritoriaze gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanaSi arsebobda brinjaos nivTebis warmoebis ori erToba. TiToeuli maTgani erTiandeboda brinjaos Taviseburi culebis warmoebiT: erTi-msubuqi, e.w. kolxur-yobanuri tipis culi da meore-mZime, e.w. centraluramierkavkasiuri tipis culi (specialur literaturaSi cnobilia aseve aRmosavlurqarTuli an iberiuli culis saxeliT).

aRniSnulis safuZvelze, gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanaSi saqarTvelos teritoriaze moiazreboda ori arqeologiuri kultura- dasavlurqarTuli - e.w. kolxuri da aRmosavlurqarTuli - e.w. iberiuli. ivaraudeboda, rom pirveli gavrcelebuli iyo dasavleT saqarTveloSi da mis momijnave Savi zRvis samxreT raionebSi da ekuTvnoda dasavlurqarTul eTnikur jgufs - kolxebs; meore gavrcelebuli iyo aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi da mis momijnave teritoriaze araqsamde da ekuTvnoda aRmosavlurqarTul eTnikur jgufs- iberebs [Бердзенишвили  Н.  Джавахишвили  И.  Джанашия  С.1946:24-25].


aRniSnuli arqeologiuri kulturebi ZiriTadad gamoyofili iyo liTonis inventaris, pirvel rigSi ki, culebis mixedviT. amasTan erTad, SemCneuli iyo isic, rom am tipis culebis gavrcelebis teritoriaze, materialuri kulturis sxva Zeglebis mixedviT gamoiyofa regionebi, romlebic imdenad gansxvavebuli materialuri kulturiT xasiaTdeba, rom rig SemTxvevebSi SesaZlebeli iyo maTi damoukidebel arqeologiur kulturebad miCneva. AaRniSnulis safuZvelze gamoiyo e.w. ganja-yarabaRuli arqeologiuri kultura [Куфтин Б. 1941:63, Hancar  Fr. 1932:123] da e.w. centraluri amierkavkasiis arqeologiuri kultura [Иессен А. 1935:145-148; Монгайт  А. 1955:121-122 da ruka].


amdenad, aRmosavlurqarTuli arqeologiuri kulturis saxelqveS gaerTianebul teritoriaze gvxvdeba erTmaneTisgan sakmaod gansxvavebuli nivTieri masala da mTel am teritoriaze arsebuli Zeglebi ar SeiZleba erT kulturad iqnes miCneuli. gansxvavebuli arqeologiuri Zeglebi gvxvdeba kolxeTis teritoriazec. es gansxvaveba  SeimCneoda keramikaSic [miqelaZe T. 1974:72].


arqeologiuri kulturis gansazRvraSi ZiriTadad marTebuli unda iyos im mkvlevarTa mosazreba, romelTa TvalsazrisiTac Aam sakiTxis kvlevaSi didia keramikuli masalis, ornamentis da religiuri rwmena-warmodgenebis mniSvneloba. Tumca gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos sxva masalac, maT Soris iaraRi da konkretulad culebic. iaraRis areali garkveul masalas iZleva arqeologiuri kulturisa da misi lokaluri raionebis gamosayofad.


samxreT kavkasiis teritoriaze arqeologiuri kulturebis kvlevis procesSi yuradReba mieqca im garemoebas, rom “kolxur” (dasavleT saqarTvelo) daí”samTavrul” (aRmosavleT saqarTvelos nawili) kulturebs axasiaTebT garkveuli saxis yurebiT Semkuli keramika [abramiSvili r. 1978, 1981]. amiT gaerTianda arqeologiuri kulturis gamosayofad saintereso niSnebi -keramika, ornamenti da religiuri rwmena-warmodgenebi [iqve]. 


am dakvirvebis Sesabamisad samxreT kavkasiis gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis arqeologiuri kulturebis Sesaxeb sxva mkvlevarebisgan  gansxvavebuli Sexeduleba Camoyalibda. kerZod, amierkavkasiis teritoriaze, gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanaSi arsebobda ori arqeologiuri  olqi:

erTi moicavda dasavleT saqarTvelosa da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos udides  nawilsDAda misi damaxasiaTebelia zoomorfulyuriani Tixis WurWeli [Абрамишвили Р.1978, Abramishvili R. und M. 1995:193].

meore arqeologiuri olqi ZiriTadad moicavda somxeTs, dasavleT azerbaijans da drois garkveul monakveTSi aRmosavleT saqarTvelos aRmosavleT da samxreT nawils (lWaSen-wiTelgorebis arqeologiuri kultura) [Абрамишвили Р.1978, Abramishvili R. und M. 1995:193].


Tavis mxriv, orive arqeologiuri olqi araerT arqeologiur kulturas aerTianebs:

pirveli arqeologiuri olqi (zoomorfulyuriani Tixis WurWlis matarebeli sazogadoeba) saqarTvelos teritoriaze iyofa or arqeologiur kulturad: erTi maTgani gavrcelebuli iyo dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze da Seesatyviseba kolxur kulturas, meore ki gavrcelebuli iyo aRmosavleT saqarTvelos umetes nawilze da Seesatyviseba samTavrul kulturas [iqve] (aqve SevniSnav, rom samTavrul da kolxur kulturebs mravali niSnis mixedviT (Tixis WurWlebi zoomorfuli yuriT, brinjaos foTliseburi satevrebi, brinjaos Tavxvia sakinZebi da sxva) yobanuri  kultura  uerTdeba da erT arqeologiur olqs moicavs).

meore arqeologiuri olqic (lWaSen-wiTelgorebis) ramdenime arqeologiuri kulturisgan Sedgeboda. MmaT Soris, saqarTvelos teritoriaze mkveTrad gamoiyofa e.w. ior-alaznis (kaxeTi-aRmosavleT saqarTvelos aRmosavleTi) da Toris (aRmosavleT saqarTvelos samxreTi) arqeologiuri kulturebi  [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, Abramishvili R. und M. 1995:191-193].


zoomorfulyuriani keramikis matarebeli sazogadoebis yvelaze  mravalricxovani da ukeT Seswavlili Zeglebi samTavros samarovanzea aRmoCenili (ix. samTavros samarovani). miuxedavad imisa, rom samTavro gviani brinjaos xanis adreul etapze samTavruli arqeologiuri kulturis yvelaze aRmosavleTiT mdebare punqtia mtkvris xeobaSi da amdenad sagulisxmoa, rom is mezobeli arqeologiuri kulturebis gavlenas ganicdis, am Zeglis keramikaSi ar Cans kulturuli texili. aTasi wlis manZilze (Zvw. XV-VIss.) samTavros samarovani qronologiuri xarvezis gareSe asaxavs zoomorfulyuriani keramikis matarebeli sazogadoebis ganviTarebas, rac Tavis mxriv, imaze miuTiTebs, rom kavkasiis magistraluri gzebis gadakveTis esoden mniSvnelovani strategiuli teritoria mTeli gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis manZilze ucvlelad uWiravs zoomorfulyuriani keramikis matarebel sazogadoebas.  


samTavruli kulturis adreuli safexuris Zeglebze ar SeimCneva qonebrivi da socialuri diferenciacia. samTavros samarovnis am periodis samarxebis mixedviT yvela mamakaci SeiaraRebuli Cans da maT Soris qonebrivi diferenciaciac umniSvneloa. AaRniSnuli viTareba ki maTi politikuri siZlieris garkveul safuZvels qmnida. gansxvavebuli viTarebaa meore arqeologiuri olqis (lWaSen-wiTelgoris) Zeglebze, sadac iaraRi, gansakuTrebiT ki satevar-maxvilebi, mxolod warCinebuli meomrebis samarxebSia aRmoCenili. sazogadoebis rigiTi wevrebis mamakacTa samarxebSi ki isini, rogorc wesi, ar gvxvdeba.


samTavruli da kolxuri arqeologiuri kulturebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli zoomorfulyuriani keramikis gavrceleba amierkavkasiaSi samxreTidan momdinare nakadebs ukavSirdeba. amaze unda metyvelebdes is faqti, rom am saxis Tixis WurWlis Semcvel uadres Zeglebze, rogorc zvelis yorRanebSi (samcxe, aRmosavleT saqarTvelo), ise modi naxes samarxebSi (imereTi, dasavleT saqarTvelo) gvxvdeba iseTi nivTebi, romelTa anatoliuri warmoSobac eWvs ar iwvevs (piramidiseburTaviani da Tavxvia sakinZebi) [abramiSvili r. 1981].


zoomorfulyuriani Tixis WurWlis gavrcelebis gzis dasadgenad sayuradReboa aRiniSnos, rom zemo imereTis (dasavleT saqarTvelos centraluri da aRmosavleTi nawili) ZeglebTan SedarebiT es keramika meti raodenobiT aris aRmoCenili samcxis (aRmosavleT saqarTvelos samxreTi) sinqronul Zeglebze, romelic, Tavis mxriv,  mcire aziis momijnave teritoriaa.


samxreTidan momdinare nakadebs ukavSirdeba aseve lWaSen-wiTelgoris arqeologiuri kulturis wris ZeglebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli dakrZalvis wesi, liTondamuSavebis teqnologia da am teqnologiiT damzadebuli nivTebi. am kulturis genezisis sakvlev teritoriad centraluri da Crdilo-aRmosavleTi anatolia ivaraudeba [Abramishvili R. und M. 1995:191].

zoomorfulyuriani keramikis matarebeli sazogadoebis arqeologiur olqSi Semavali samTavruli kulturis arealSi Sedioda ori msxvili sawarmoo kera. EerTs eWira Sida qarTli, xolo meores qvemo qarTli. 


samTavrul kulturas eWira Sualeduri teritoria lWaSen-wiTelgorisa da kolxur kulturebs Soris. amitomac samTavruli kulturis gavrcelebis dasavleT nawilSi Warbobda kolxuri kulturisTvis damaxasiaTebeli nivTebi, xolo aRmosavleTSi ki ior-alaznis (kaxeTi, aRmosavleT saqarTvelo) sawarmoo keris elementebi, romelic Tavis mxriv, lWaSen-wiTelgoris sawarmoo olqSi erTiandeboda.


ramdenime sawarmoo kera arsebobda samTavruli kulturis dasavleTiT momijnave kolxuri kulturis teritoriaze. maT Soris ZiraTadia: samxreT-dasavleTi kolxeTi, kolxeTis dablobi, Crdilo-dasavleTi kolxeTiв daф aRmosavleT saqarTvelos Crdilo-dasavleTi nawili [qoriZe d. 1965:121-152; ramiSvili al. 1979; miqelaZe T. 1974, Иессен А.1935:7-238, ruka1;  Абрамишвили Р.1988:19-20, jafariZe o. 1950:35-87].E

es kerebi, rogorc Cans, mTeli gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis manZilze arsebobda.


siZlieriT gamoirCeva samxreT-dasavleT da Crdilo-dasavleT kolxeTis kerebi, romlebmac didi roli Seasrules am kulturis wamyvani iaraRis - kolxuri culis Seqmnasa da CamoyalibebaSi. am TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa, rom yubanispireTis tipis msgavsi culebis Semcveli uZvelesi kompleqsebi aRmoCenilia Crdilo-dasavleT kolxeTis teritoriaze (biWvinTisa da lixnis ganZebi) [qoriZe d. 1965:133, tab.V; Иессен А.1951:81, sur.4,32; Трапш  М. 1970:tab.VIII, nax.12-15].

samxreT-dasavleTi da Crdilo-dasavleTi kolxeTiT Semoifargleba kolxuri tipis culebis prototipebis ori variantis gavrcelebac [qoriZe d. 1965:57-58].


savaraudoa, rom kolxuri culis warmoebis kerebis areali scdeba kolxeTis teritorias (keopri-keoi [qoriZe d. 1965:sur.52 ], mesxeT-javaxeTi [Гамбашидзе О.  Квижинадзе  К. 1981,tab. X.XXV18; Гамбашидзе О.  Квижинадзе  К. 1982:53, tab. XXXVI24.]). sainteresoa isic, rom kolxuri kulturis saboloo formirebamde,  anu gvianbrinjaos xanis dasawyisamde am kulturis gavrcelebis mTel teritoriaze im regionebis CaTvliT, sadac Semdeg vxedavT yobanur kulturas da yubanispireTis metalurgiul keras, kolxuri kulturis wrisTvis damaxasiaTebeli brinjaos ganZebi aRmoCenilia mxolod samxreT-dasavleT da Crdilo-dasavleT kolxeTSi (samxreT-dasavleTSi: ureki, Woroxi, erge, qobuleTi, zeniTi, maxo. Crdilo-dasavleTSi: qviSari, lixni, ganTiadi, gagra, biWvinTa, kolxida).


r. abramiSvilis dakvirvebiT, gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis zoomorfulyuriani Tixis WurWlis gavrcelebis sazRvrebi (ruka #1) ZiriTadad emTxveva SemdegSi, adreelinisturi xanis qarTuli saxelmwifoebis (iberia da kolxeTi) sazRvrebs [abramiSvili r. 1981].                          misive TvalsazrisiT, keramikul masalaze dayrdnobiT gamoyofili ori arqeologiuri kulturis (samTavrulis da kolxuris) sazRvrebi Seefardeba ori qarTveluri enis: megrul-Wanuris (zanuris) da qarTulis gavrcelebis sazRvrebs [iqve].

gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis zoomorfulyuriani keramikis arqeologiuri olqis samTavruli kultura genetikurad ZiriTadad Sida qarTlis (samTavros, nulisa da waRvlis) samarovnebis, mesxeTis (zvelis yorRanebi) da dasavleT saqarTvelos winamorbed ZeglebTan aris dakavSirebuli, lWaSen-wiTelgoris arqeologiuri kultura ki e.w. TrialeTis kulturasTan, romelic garda sakuTriv TrialeTisa, qvemo qarTlisa da somxeTis teritoriaze iyo gavrcelebuli. mesxeT-javaxeTi warmoadgenda im teritorias, sadac Suabrinjaosa da Suabrinjaodan gvianbrinjaos xanaze gardmaval periodSi zemoaRniSnuli kulturebi erTmaneTs erwymoda.


im teritoriaze, sadac gavrcelebuli iyo e.w. TrialeTuri kultura, gvianibrinjaos xanis Zeglebi inarCuneben TrialeTis kulturis Suabrinjaos xanis ZeglebisTvis damaxasiaTebel niSnebs: vardisferi an ruxsarCuliani Tixis WurWeli, romelsac aqvs Savi priala zedapiri. am WurWels, rogorc wesi, yuri ara aqvs da didi moculobisaa [Абрамишвили Р.1978,tab.III6-9,11,24,25,3032,48,49,51,54,55,67,72,73], xSirad gvxvdeba dabalyeliani kvercxiseburi dergebi [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab.III24,36], Rrma pirSezneqili fialebi da maRal Rru fexze Semdgari WurWeli, romelic Zalian gavs TrialeTis #15 yorRanis brinjaos larnaks [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab.III 9, tab.IV127].

warCinebulTa mdidrul samarxebSi xSirad gvxvdeba oqros nivTebi, romelTa Sesrulebis teqnika TrialeTis yorRanebSi napovni oqros nivTebis teqnikas uaxlovdeba. sayuradReboa is faqtic, rom am teritoriaze Cveulebriv yorRanebi gvxvdeba.


Zv. w. II aTaswleulis mesame meoTxedSi (Zv. w. XV-XIIIss.) aRmosavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze ori gansxvavebuli donis mqone arqeologiuri kulturis sinqronulobis [abramiSvili r. 1961:312] sawinaaRmdego mosazreba gamoTqva k. ficxelaurma. misi Tvalsazrisis Tanaxmad, am periodis Zeglebi mTel centralur amierkavkasiaSi erTgvarovania (misi qronologiuri sistemiT Zv. w. 1350-1250ww.), momdevno safexurze ki iqmneba am erTiani kulturis safuZvelze aRmocenebuli arqeologiuri kulturebi (Sida qarTlis teritoriaze-samTavruli, xolo kaxeTis teritoriaze ior-alaznis) [ficxelauri k. 1973:161, tab. LXIX].


am sakmaod rTuli da sadao arqeologiuri kulturis  wamyvan Zeglebs aRmosavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze, lagodexis raionSi gaTxrili wiTelgorebis ori yorRani warmoadgens (ix. wiTelgorebis yorRanebi), romlebic somxeTSi-lWaSenSi gaTxril yorRanebTan erTad amierkavkasaSi adre gaTxril tipiur ZeglTa Soris Tavisi simdidriT gamoirCeva.

wiTelgorebis orive  yorRani miCneulia erTi arqeologiuri kulturis  sxvadasxva safexuris amsaxvel Zeglad. Oorive qronologiuri sistemis mixedviT (abramiSvili,  ficxelauri) qronologiurad win uswrebs #2 yorRani da orive avtoris mier is Zv. w. 1450-1350ww. Soris eqceva. aRniSnuli TariRi abramiSvilis mixedviT gviani brinjaos xanas Seesabameba, ficxelauris mixedviT Sua brinjaos xanidan gvianbrinjaos xanaze gardamaval periods [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab.III; ficxelauri k. 1973, tab.LXIX].


wiTelgorebis #1 yorRani ficxelaurma Zv. w. 1350-1250 ww. daaTariRa, abramiSvilma am yorRanisa da misi sinqronuli Zeglebis TariRi Zv.w. XIVs. boloTi da XIII saukuniT gansazRvra.

miuxedavad imisa, rom wiTelgorebis yorRanebisTvis orive avtoris mier miRebul TariRebs Soris sxvaoba praqtikulad ar aris (rac aris is ar SeiZleba gaxdes principuli davis sagani), maT mier Sedgenili qronologiuri sistemebis mixedviT  Zv. w. II aTaswleulis  meore naxevarSi aRmosavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze mcxovrebi mosaxleobis social-ekonomikuri da kulturul-politikuri ganviTarebis ori urTierTgamomricxavi suraTi iqmneba.


wiTelgorebis #2 yorRanis kavSiri Suabrinjaos xanis TrialeTur kulturasTan misi gaTxrisTanave iqna SemCneuli [abramiSvili r. 1962]. am msgavsebis gamo ficxelaurma #2 yorRani Suabrinjaos xanidan gvianbrinjaos xanaze gardamaval safexurs miakuTvna. xolo vinaidan am yorRanis keramika uaxloes msgavsebas poulobs wiTelgorebis #1 yorRanTan, es ukanaskneli gvianbrinjaos adreul etaps miakuTvna. ficxelauris SexedulebiT, mis mier gamoyofili gardamavali periodis Zeglebi, iseve rogorc gvianbrinjaos adreuli etapis Zeglebi erTgvarovania mTel centralur amierkavkasiaSi da genetikurad dakavSirebulia TrialeTis kulturasTan. xolo imis gamo, rom samTavruli kulturis kopleqsebi brinjaos foTliseburi satevrebiT ar ukavSirdeba TrialeTuri kulturis Zeglebs, avtorma isini gviani brinjaos epoqis meore etaps miakuTvna [ficxelauri k. 1973:159 da Semdegi].


Sesabamisad, k. ficxelauris qronologiuri sistemis mixedviT samTavruli kulturis foTliseburi satevrebis Semcvel fenas qronologiurad win uswrebs wiTelgorebis yorRanebis kultura, romelsac is centraluramierkavkasiurs uwodebs da romlis daSlis Sedegadac varaudobs kaxeTis teritoriaze ior-alaznis ormdinareTis arqeologiuri kulturis Camoyalibebas-brinjaos Sedgeniltariani da mTlianadsxmuli satevrebiT, xolo Sida qarTlis teritoriaze ki samTavruli kulturis Camoyalibebas-brinjaos foTliseburi satevrebiT [ficxelauri k. 1973:170].


aRniSnulisgan gansxvavebiT, abramiSvilma wiTelgorebis #2 yorRani samTavruli foTliseburi satevrebis sinqronulad miiCnia, radgan am yorRanSi Sua brinjaos xanis TrialeTuri ZeglebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli keramikis formebTan erTad aRmoCnda samTavros  foTliseburi satevrebis Semcveli fenisTvis damaxasiaTebeli pirmoyrili WurWeli da sardionis daxeTqili mZivebi [abramiSvili r. 1978:82; Абрамишвили Р.1978, tab. III10,31]. amasTan erTad, wiTelgoris #1 yorRanSi (romelic, rogorc Cans, gvaris belads ekuTvnoda, ix. wiTelgorebis yorRanebi, tab. I,II) aRmoCenili liTonis ormocdaaTi nivTidan arcerTi ar aris damaxasiaTebeli samTavruli kulturisTvis da ukavSirdeba qvemo qarTlisa da kaxeTis (saqarTvelo), ZiriTadad ki somxeTisa da dasavleT azerbaijanis Zeglebs. wiTelgorebis orive yorRanSi aRmoCenilia 70 Tixis WurWeli da aqedan arcerTs ara aqvs samTavruli kulturis ZeglebisTvis ganmsazRvreli zoomorfuli yuri.

abramiSvilis Tvalsazrisis Sesabamisad, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze ori arqeologiuri kultura erT qronologiur sibrtyeze aRmoCnda. sazRvari maT Soris md. Aaragvze daido. Aaragvis dasavleTiT Sav zRvamde arsebobda zoomorfulyuriani keramikis matarebeli sazogadoebis arqeologiuri olqi. Mmis aRmosavleTiT ki arsebobda lWaSenisa da wiTelgorebis yorRanebis arqeologiuri kulturis matarebeli sazogadoebis arqeologiuri olqi [Abramishvili R. und M. 1995:191-193].


bunebrivia, rom sxvadasxva arqeologiuri kulturebis Sexvedris raionebSi gvxvdeba sxvadasxva arqeologiuri kulturisTvis damaxasiaTebeli Zeglebi. aRniSnulis gamo, ama Tu im kulturis gavrcelebis sazRvrebis zusti dadgena SeuZlebelia. miT ufro, rom esa Tu is kultura droSi ganicdis Tavisi gavrcelebis sazRvrebis cvalebadobas da es cvalebadoba aris ara uecari, aramed TandaTanobiT  mimdinareobs.


lWaSen-wiTelgoruli arqeologiuri kultura sadReisod xelTarsebuli masalebis mixedviT Tavisi maRali doniT mkveTrad gamoirCeva aramarto amierkavkasiis, aramed evraziis sinqronul kulturebs Sorisac. 

lWaSen-wiTelgoris arqeologiuri kulturis gavrcelebis teritoriaze arsebobda ramdenime metalurgiuli kera: erTi, sakuTriv lWaSen-wiTelgoris, romelic moicavda somxeTs, Aazerbaijanis ukidures dasavleT nawils da masTan aRmosavleT saqarTvelos teritoriis momijnave nawils, meore  ior-alaznis auzs. mZlavri kera arsebobda mesxeT-javaxeTSic [Abramishvili R. und M. 1995:190-205].


sakuTriv lWaSen-wiTelgoris sawarmoo kera, romlisTvisac damaxasiaTebelia rTuli, fuRurosxeuliani, daWviruli da maRalmxatvruli brinjaos nivTebis cvilis modelis dakargvis meTodiT damzadeba, brinjaos metalurgiis ganviTarebis maRali donis amsaxvelia mTel wina aziaSi. Aam nivTebs damzadebis sirTuliT analogebi ara aqvT sinqronul evraziis masalebSi [gomelauri n. 2003:6]. MmaT dasamzadeblad SemuSavebuli mxatvruli normebi, romlebsac Tvali edevneba amierkavkasiis vrcel teritoriaze, centralizebul saxelosnoTa arsebobas gulisxmobs, razec mianiSnebs teritoriulad erTmaneTisgan daSorebul  mdidrul samarxebSi identur skulpturaTa aRmoCenis faqtebi: mewamori (somxeTi)-garajamirli (Aazerbaijani), bebnisi (berikldeebi, saqarTvelo)-acarati (somxeTi), qvemo sasireTi (saqarTvelo)-arTiki (somxeTi) [gomelauri n. 2003:8].


iaraRidan, romelic lWaSen-wiTelgoruli kulturisTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli unda aRiniSnos satevrebi, pirvel rigSi ki e.w. brinjaos winaaziuri satevrebi, romelTagan sabolood ganviTarda sakuTriv lWaSen-wiTelgoruli satevar-maxvilebi mTeli Tavisi saxesxvaobebiT (roca laparakia sabrZolo iaraRis ganviTarebaze winaaziuri satevar-maxvilebidan igulisxmeba ara maTi evoluciuri ganviTareba, aramed gardaqmna adgilobriv niadagze).

amave kulturisTvis aris damaxisiaTebeli brinjaos satexebi da saWrisebi, brinjaos kavebi da orpirlesili bolokveTili nivTi.

lWaSen-wiTelgoruli kulturis samkauli nairsaxovania. is mzaddeboda rogorc liTonisgan (spilenZi, brinjao, anTimoni, vercxli, oqro), aseve naxevrad Zvirfasi qvebisgan (sardioni, aqati, pasta, mina). am kulturis Zeglebze xSirad gvxvdeba brinjaosgan damzadebuli brtyeli, reliefuri da Wdeuli ornamentiT Semkuli samajurebi da beWdebi, sasafeTqleebi, sakisre rgolebi, gulsakidebi, sakidebi,  sakinZebi da sxva.


brinjao-rkinis xanis arqeologiur kulturaTa Soris yvelaze masiur masalas da Sesabamisad ramdenadme mis ganmsazRvrelsac keramika warmoadgens. lWaSen-wiTelgoruli keramika, rogorc wesi, damzadebulia Carxze, kargad ganleqili Tixisgan. misi keci mtkicea, WurWlis zedapiri Savpriala, Sidapiri moruxo-monacrisfro. SedarebiT iSviaTia mqise Tixisgan damzadebuli mowiTalo-moruxo kecis mqone sqelkeciani keramika, romelic rogorc wesi mozrdili WurWlis-dergebis saxiT aris warmodgenili. am saxis WurWels xSirad irgvliv Semouyveba reliefuri bawriseburi ornamenti. rogorc formiT, aseve daniSnulebiT bevrad ufro nairsaxovania Savpriala WurWeli.


lWaSen-wiTelgoris kulturis keramikul nawarmSi xSirad gvxvdeba didi zomis Rrma, nairsaxovani jamebi da e.w. pirmoyrili WurWeli. SedarebiT iSviaTad gvxvdeba, magram am kulturisTvis damaxasiaTebelia maRalfexiani barZimebi, samfexa jamebi da kaklis naxevari naWuWiseburi formis WurWeli.

aRniSnuli kulturisTvis damaxasiaTebelia keramikis Semkoba tvifris saSualebiT datanili ornamentiT, romelic ZiriTadad gamosaxavs solebs, erTameTSi Casmul wreebs, uwyvet spirals da sxva.


lWaSen-wiTelgoruli kulturis erT-erT arsebiT niSans warmoadgens warCinebul pirTa fenis arseboba, romelTaTvisac damaxasiaTebelia samarxSi maTi warCinebis aRmniSvneli niSnebis Cataneba: orTiTebi, samTiTebi, Standartebi, e.w. bunikebi, sarkeebi da sxva. dakrZalul pirTa warCinebis aRmniSvnelia aseve maTi dakrZalva etlebze, romlebSic xarebi an ufro xSirad cxenebia Sebmuli. warCinebis niSans warmoadgens aseve etlis xelnaze dasamagrebeli Ruzisebur sadgarze mdgari cxovelebis, frinvelebis da saomari etlebis brinjaos skulpturebi, brinjaos wyvili lagmebi. am pirTa warCinebis mauwyebelia aseve brinjaos maxvilebi, cilindruli sabeWdavebi, oqros mZivebi da sxva.


miuxedavad imisa, rom lWaSen-wiTelgoruli arqeologiuri kultura ar aris gaTviTcnobierebuli rkinis metalurgiaSi, am sazogadoebis maRali fena iyenebs mezobeli tomebis  miRwevas, anu kulturis am wreSi arsebobs am ZviradRirebuli inovaciis momxmarebeli.  amis maCvenebeli unda iyos is, rom am kulturis mdidrul samarxebSi - wiTelgori (saqarTvelo), lWaSeni, lori-berdi (somxeTi), garajamirli (azerbaijani) rkina ar Cans, xolo am kulturis wris is Zeglebi, romlebSic rkina gvxvdeba-berikldeebis #4 yorRani (saqarTvelo), Trelis #65 samarxi (saqarTvelo, ix. Trelis gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis samarxebi, tab VI), werovnis #74 samarxi (saqarTvelo, ix. werovani II samarovani, tab. IX) samTavruli kulturis arealSia moqceuli.

lWaSen-wiTelgoris kulturis arealSi vxvdebiT dakrZalvis gansxvavebul wes-Cveulebas da sxvadasxva tipis samarxebs: yorRans, kromlexs, damatebiT samarxebs, katakombas, ormosamarxs, qvayuTs. aRniSnuli  imis mauwyebeli unda iyos, rom am arqeologiuri kulturis gavrcelebis teritoriaze arsebobda ara erTi eTnikuri elementi, romelTac sazogadoebis socialuri ganviTarebis gansxvavebuli done hqondaT. Asavaraudod, aq adgili unda hqondes im viTarebas, roca saqme gvaqvs erT politikur gaerTianebasTan, romelSic erTi an ramdenime eTnikuri elementis kavSiri hegemonobs.


lWaSen-wiTelgoruli kulturis matarebeli mosaxleobis didi nawili met-naklebi intensivobiT ialaRur mesaqonleobas misdevda, rac TavisTavad mosaxleobis gadaadgilebis aucileblobas  iwvevda. aRniSnuliT aris gapirobebuli is viTarebac, rom lWaSen-wiTelgorelTa samarxebi (rogorc wesi yorRanebi) ZiriTadad am ialaRuri e.w. cxvris gzebis gaswvriv mdebareobs. zemoaRniSnuli erT-erTi safuZvelia, imisa rom lWaSen-wiTelgoruli kulturis arqeologiuri masala vrcel teritoriazea gavrcelebuli da is sxva arqeologiur kulturaTa Zeglebis gverdi-gverd gvxvdeba.

miuxedavad aRniSnuli viTarebisa  wiTelgoris #1 yorRanis liTonis nivTebis analogebis gaTvaliswineba aRniSnuli kulturis teritoriuli gavrcelebis Sesaxeb garkveuli daskvnis SesaZleblobas qmnis (ruka #2).


lWaSen-wiTelgoruli kulturis kompleqsebSi gvxvdeba iseTi masala, romelic winaaziuri analogebis mixedviT SedarebiT kargad TariRdeba Zv.w. XV-XIIIss-iT. aseTebia: brinjaosa da Zvlisagan damzadebuli konusuri, pastis daRaruli bikonusuri mZivebi, brinjaosa da oqros diskoseburi mZivebi, brinjaos firfitisgan damzadebuli abjris garkveuli saxeobebi, wriulsaybeuriani lagmebi D-seburi daboloebiani naxvretebiT.

brinjaosa da Zvlisgan damzadebuli konusuri mZivebis analogiuri mZivi aRmoCenilia hasan-zaminSi, romelsac Seferi Zv.w. 1450-1350ww. aTariRebs [Shaeffer Cl. 1948:404-406, 413-415], pastis daRaruli bikonusuri mZivebi aRmoCenilia wiTelgoris #1 yorRanSi (ix.wiTelgorebis yorRanebi, tab.II19), lori-berdis #2 da #7 yorRanebSi [Деведжян  С. 1981, tab. IX3,4], zemo bodbis #4 da #7 yorRanebSi [Пицхелаури К. 1979, tab.VI9, IX3].  am saxis mZivebi nanaxia Cila-qanes #2 dolmenSi [Shaeffer Cl. 1948:415, tab.LX, nax 21927] da vereSi [Shaeffer Cl. 1948, nax 22722]. Seferi am Zeglebs (Cila-qane, vere) Zv.w. 1450-1200 wlebs Soris aqcevs.

wiTelgoris #1 yorRanis analogiuri abjris firfitebi aRmoCenilia gadrekilis #1,10,26 samarxebSi (ix. gadrekilis samarovani, tab. II6, III19,20), boRaz-qeis III doneze, alalaxSi, megidoSi, Coga-bambalSi, nuziSi da sxva [Пицхелаури К. 1979:100-101, tab. XXXII].


ufro zustad TariRdeba centraluri amierkavkasiis Zeglebze aRmoCenili cilindruli sabeWdavebi, romelTa TariRic b. hrudas mixedviT Zv.w. XV-XIII ss.-iT ganisazRvra [Kossak G. 1983:170-171]; lWaSenis yorRanebSi aRmoCenili brinjaos samTiTebi, romelTa analogebic aRmoCenilia egvipteli faraonebis merneptas (Zv.w. 1251-1231ww.) kartuSiani maxvilisa [Shaeffer Cl. 1956:170-178,sur.122-125, tab. VIII] da amenofisis (Zv.w. 1455-1429 Tu 1412-1375ww.) beWdis TanxlebiT.

aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, lWaSen-wiTelgoruli arqeologiuri kulturis adreuli Zeglebis (wiTelgoris #2 yorRani (1450-1350ww.) da misi sinqronuli Zeglebi) TariRi zogadad Zv.w. XVs. II naxevriTa da XIV s. I naxevriT ganisazRvra, meore etapis Zeglebi ki (wiTelgoris #1 yorRani da misi sinqronuli Zeglebi) Zv.w. XIVs. boloTi da XIIIs-iT daTariRda [Абрамишвили Р.1978].


yovelive zemoT aRniSnulis Sedegad marTebuli unda iyos mosazreba, romlis mixedviTac Zv.w. II aTaswleulis III meoTxedSi (Zv.w. XV-XIIIss.) aRmosavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze ori sinqronuli arqeologiuri kultura Tanaarsebobda. Sesabamisad, zoomorfulyuriani keramikis (aRmosavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze samTavruli arqeologiuri kultura) da lWaSen-wiTelgorul arqeologiur kulturebs Soris sxvaoba aris ara qronologiuri, aramed kulturul-regionaluri.


ZiriTadi gansxvaveba abramiSvilis Tvalsazrissa da kavkasiis arqeologiur kulturebze momuSave sxva mkvlevarTa Soris imaSi mdgomareobs, rom aRmosavleT saqarTvelos, azerbaijanisa da somxeTis teritoriaze arsebuli Zeglebi erTi kulturis wreSi ganixileboda, an erT did sawarmoo raionad moiazreboda, romelSic ufro mcire lokaluri raionebis arsebobac igulisxmeboda. abramiSvilis varaudiT ki aRmosavleT saqarTvelos udidesi nawili kulturuli da eTnikuri TvalsazrisiT erTiandeba dasavleT saqarTvelosTan da orive es teritoria erT did arqeologiur olqs warmoadgens.


azrTa aRniSnuli sxvadasxvaobis mizezi isaa, rom arqeologiuri kulturis Taobaze ama Tu im Sexedulebis SemuSaveba liTonis inventars emyareboda, abramiSvilis debulebis ZiriTad safuZvels ki keramikuli masala da masze gamoxatuli religiuri rwmena-warmodgenebi warmoadgens. am mosazrebis SemuSavebisas cxadia, gaTvaliswinebulia materialuri kulturis Zeglebis mTeli kompleqsi.


CvenTvis saintereso periodis amierkavkasiis unificirebuli qronologiuri skalis Sesadgenad gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis masalas Seicavs Trelis samarovani-ganlagebuli Tbilisis teritoriaze (ix. Trelis samarovani), sadac ise rogorc mcxeTaSi (ix. samTavros samarovani) aRniSnul periodSi erTmaneTs xvdeboda kavkasiis teritoriaze arsebuli yvela arqeologiuri kultura. amitom, amierkavkasiis arqeologiuri Zeglebis daTariRebis ZiriTad sayrdens samTavrosa da Trelis samarovnebze gamoyofili qronologiuri jgufebi warmoadgens.


samTavros samarovnis samarxTa daTariReba dawyebulia gviani kompleqsebidan, radgan maTSi aRmoCenili nivTebi zusti daTariRebis SesaZleblobas iZleva. amierkavkasiis sxva ZeglTa (maT Soris Trelis samarovnis) daTariReba ki iwyeba adreuli kompleqsebidan, rac  saSualebas iZleva Tvali gaedevnos arqeologiuri kulturisa da calkeuli nivTebis tipologiur ganviTarebas.


SeniSvna: 1. qvemoT, ama Tu im qronologiuri jgufis mokle mimoxilvisas ZiriTadad SenarCunebulia im Zeglebisa da literaturis miTiTeba, romelsac r. abramiSvili samxreT kavkasiis qronologiur jgufebze muSaobis dros eyrdnoboda [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. I-III].


2. statias Tan erTvis r. abramiSvilis samxreT kavkasiis gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis arqeologiuri Zeglebis qronologiuri skala (koreqtirebuli), romelic gamoqveynebulia 1997 w. Mm. abramiSvilis mier.



                                …***



samxreT kavkasiis qronologiuri sistemis mixedviT gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis arqeologiuri Zeglebis eqvsi qronologiuri jgufia dadgenili: aqedan Zv.w. XVIs.-XVs.-is I naxevris farglebSi Suabrinjaos xanidan  gvianbrinjaos xanaze gardamavali periodis Zeglebi gaerTianda. am etapis gamoyofis SesaZlebloba abramiSvils misca Trelis samarovnis arqeologiurma masalam. aRniSnul periods avtorma miakuTvna Trelis #43,53,74 samarxebi (ix. Trelis Suabrinjaos xanis samarxebi), radgan TiToeul maTganSi garda Suabrinjaos xanisTvis damaxasiaTebeli nivTebisa, aRmoCenilia Tixis WurWeli, romelic srulad imeorebs gvianbrinjaos xanis keramikis formebs (samarxi#53) an warmoadgens maT prototipebs (samarxi #43,74. [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. III76-82, 103-106, 122-126]. am samarxebis nivTebis analogebis mixedviT aRniSnul xanas miekuTvneba samarxi #84, romelSic aRmoCnda bikonusuri WurWeli zemoT aweuli rkaliseburi yurebiT da samarxi #51 (ix. Trelis Suabrinjaos xanis samarxebi).


samTavros samarovnis Zeglebidan Sua brinjaos xanidan gvianbrinjaos xanaze gardamaval periods miekuTvneba: sam. #92 (S ubani), #142 (S ubani), #156 (S ubani),  #62 (S ubani), #70 (S ubani), 76 (S ubani) #194, #198 (S ubani) (ix. samTavros samarovani,tab. XLIII-XLVI).

gardamaval etaps miekuTvna aseve #1 da #2 yorRanebi sofel zvelidan (mesxeTi), romelSic Suabrinjaos xanis mraval saganTa Soris aRmoCnda gvianbrinjaos xanisTvis damaxasiaTebeli nivTebi: brinjaos Tavxvia sakinZebi da zoomorfulyuriani Tixis WurWeli. amave yorRanebSi aRmoCenilia e.w. kanTarosis tipis WurWeli sferuli taniT maRal fexze [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. III94,95, 115-118].


amave qronologiur jgufSi gaerTianda sof. lilos maxloblad (amJamad Tbilisis ukiduresi aRmosavleTi gareubani) gaTxrili ##5,8,9 yorRanebi [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. III107,108,127], #12 samarxi imiris goraze Sulaveris maxloblad (tab. III83,109,110), #2 yorRani marneulis velze [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. III, 128], waRvlis  samarxTa didi nawili (xaSuris raioni): #1,3,7,8,11,13,16,17,18 [Рамишвили А. 1980:67-69], #38,49,55 [Рамишвили А. 1981, tab. XXXI], # 63,72,76,77,80,81 [Рамишвили А. 1982, tab. XIX], da iltos nasaxlaris kenotafi [Абрамишвили Р.1978, tab. III84.85].


mocemuli qronologiuri jgufis adreul etaps ekuTvnis kirovakanis yorRani [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. III91-93, 132-135], kuftinis mier 1949 wels nulSi gaTxrili #1,3,6 samarxebi. yvela am kompleqsSi Suabrinjaos xanis tipiur masalasTan erTad gvxvdeba gvianbrinjaos xanis ieris mqone nivTebic: kirovakanis yorRanSi-brinjaos satexi, brtyeli culi da foTliseburi satevari; nulis samarxebSi-brinjaos foTliseburi satevari da rombiseburganivkveTiani brinjaos samajurebi. qronologiuri TvalsazrisiT es Zeglebi zemodan unda emijnebodes Trelis #43 da lWaSenis #6 samarxebs [Абрамишвили Р. 1978].


gardamavali etapis yvelaze gviandeli Zeglebi unda iyos zemo-bodbes yorRanebi (kaxeTi) [Пицхелаури К. 1979, tab.V-IX] da SesaZlebelia namgalamiwebis #2 yorRanic (diRmis veli, Tbilisis Crdilo-dasavleTi gareubani) [abramiSvili r. 19802 nax.42,43]. avtorisave TvalsazrisiT, arsebobs garkveuli safuZveli, rom zemo-bodbes #1,2,7 yorRanebi da namgalamiwis #2 yorRani miviCnioT aseve gviani brinjaos adre etapis Zeglebad. yovel SemTxvevaSi, misi azriT, am ZeglebSi ar gvxvdeba arcerTi iseTi nivTi, romelic Suabrinjaos xanisTvis damaxasiaTebel yvela niSans Seicavs. maT mxolod am xanis damaxasiaTebeli calkeuli niSnebi SeinarCunes [Абрамишвили Р. 1978].

Suabrinjaodan gvianbrinjaos xanaze gardamaval periods ekuTvnis stirfazis #5 kromlexi (ix. stirfazis samarovani) da Tlias samarovnis #1,3,4,7 samarxebi [Техов Б.В. 1957:40-44, tab. I-III, V,VI,IX].


momdevno etapze (Zv.w. XVs. II nax.-XIVs. [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. III]) samTavros samarovnis foTliseburi satevrebis Semcveli samarxebis qronologiuri jgufis arsebobis dros, rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze ori sinqronuli arqeologiuri kultura arsebobda - samTavruli da lWaSen-wiTelgoruli.


samTavruli arqeologiuri kultura, pirvel rigSi, moicavda Sida qarTls. aRniSnuli kultura moicavda aseve zemo da qvemo qarTlis CrdiloeT raionebs da dasavleT saqarTvelos Crdilo-aRmosavleT nawils (aqve unda SevniSno, rom gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanaSi Sida qarTli erT mTlian erTeuls arasdros  warmoadgenda. MmTeli am drois manZilze  met-naklebad SesamCnevi gansxvavebaa mis calkeul raionebs Soris). meore arqeologiuri kultura saqarTvelos teritoriaze kaxeTsa da qvemo qarTlis did nawilSi iyo gavrcelebuli.


am qronologiur jgufSi (Zv.w. XVs. II nax. – XIVs.) eqceva: xovles VIII-VII horizontebi (ix. xovles nasaxlari), madnisWalis samarovani, Walisa da kobalas samarovnebi [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. III21-23, 40-41], raWis ubnis kompleqsebi, Trelis samarovnis samarxebi #74,53 [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab.III76-79, 103-04, 122-124].  aseve Trelis ##37,42,55,56 samarxebi [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab.III5-7,24-27,45], namgalamiwis yorRanebi [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab.III8,30], baiburTis samarovnis samarxebi [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab.III67], wiTelgorebis #2 yorRani [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab.III9-12, 31-32, 51,54], oles #11 da #13 yorRanebi [ficxelauri k. tab. LIII2, LIV], zemo bodbes #1 da #2 yorRanebi, sabidaxCas #28 yorRani, tabawyuris #42 yorRani [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab.III48,49], artikis samarovnis samarxebis erTi jgufi [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab.III50,68-71] da rusTefes samarxi [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab.III72,73].


zemoT xsenebuli ori arqeologiuri kulturis (samTavruli da lWaSen-wiTelgoruli) sinqronizaciisTvis saintereso masala aRmoCnda kaspis #14 samarxSi [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab.III44-47,64-66], sadac erTad aRmoCnda kaxeTisa da qvemo qarTlisTvis damaxsiaTebeli Tixis WurWeli Rrma koncentruli sartylebiTa da reliefuri bawriseburi ornamentiT da samTavruli kulturisTvis damaxasiaTebeli brinjaos masragaxsnili Subispiri.


kolxuri inventaris Semcveli Zeglebidan am qronologiur jgufs miekuTvneba: urbnisis #219 samarxi [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. III16-20], dgvrisis [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. III13,14,33], abanos [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. III15,34,35,58,59], xizabavras [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. III56,57] koleqciebi, maxos ganZi [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. III36-39]  da sxva.


samTavruli kulturis pirveli etapis ZeglebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli brinjaos foTliseburi satevari Zv. w. XIV saukuneSi arsebobas wyvets samTavros samarovanze da savaraudoa mcxeTis mimdebare teritoriaze. Tlias samarovnis masalebis mixedviT [Техов Б. 1980, 1981, 1985] ki Sida qarTlis CrdiloeT raionebSi aRniSnuli tipis iaraRi sakmaod didxans arsebobs.


samTavros samarovnis Semdegi qronologiur jgufis (Zv.w. XIIIs.-XIIs. I naxevari) [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. II] periodSi samTavruli kulturis sazRvrebi sagrZnoblad icvleba. am periodis arqeologiuri masalebis mixedviT savaraudoa amierkavkasiis teritoriaze mosaxle tomTa TvalsaCino gadaadgilebebi. Zvw. XIV s.-is miwurulidan zoomorfulyuriani keramikis matarebeli tomebi (samTavruli kultura) iWrebian diRmis velze (Tbilisis teritoria), sadac gvianbrnjaos adre etapze lWaSen-wiTelgoris arqeologiuri olqisTvis damaxasiaTebeli kultura Cans [abramiSvili r. 19803]. samTavruli arqeologiuri kulturis sazRvrebi Sors iwevs aRmoavleTiT. am kulturis ganmsazRvrel niSnebs vxvdebiT Sida kaxeTSi, kerZod, gurjaanis raionSi. Tumc zoomorfulyuriani keramika ver ikavebs am teritorias da swrafad ixevs ukan.

Zv.w. XIII s. samTavruli kulturis matarebeli tomebi ikaveben mTel qvemo qarTls.


yvela es daskvna gakeTebulia keramikul nawarmze dayrdnobiT. brinjaos iaraRis mixedviT ki SesaZlebeli iyo sxva daskvnis gamotana, radgan Sida qarTlSi (mis aRmosavleT raionSi) am dros vrceldeba e.w. ior-alaznis auzisTvis damaxasiaTebeli satevrebi. liTonis inventaris mixedviT, Sida qarTlis CrdiloeTi raionebi aRniSnul xanaSi ganicdis yobanuri kulturis Zlier gavlenas, xolo dasavleTi raionebi-kolxuri kulturis gavlenas. gansxvavebuli viTarebaa zemo qarTlSi da Sida qarTlis samxreT raionebSi (kerZod, borjomisa da mcxeTis raionebSi). xelTarsebuli masalebis mixedviT am periodSi savaraudoa, rom aRniSnul teritoriaze gverdi-gverd arsebobdnen samTavruli da lWaSen-wiTelgoruli kulturis matarebeli tomebi, romelTac erTmaneTTan met-naklebad mSvidobiani urTierToba unda hqonodaT.


aRniSnuli drois keramikuli masala mesxeTidan ar gagvaCnia, ris gamoc Znelia dabejiTebiT iTqvas, ra kulturis wreSi unda Sediodes es teritoria. liTonis inventaris mixedviT, mesxeTis dasavleT nawilSi kolxuri kulturis Zlieri gavlena Cans. rac Seexeba javaxeTs, aqedan aRniSnuli periodis Zeglebi kidev ufro umniSvneloa, Tumc arsebulis mixedviT es teritoria lWaSen-wiTelgoris kulturis gavlenas ganicdis.


aRniSnuli qronologiuri jgufis Tanadrouli Zeglebia - qarTlSi, sof. beSTaSenis maxloblad geriak-Cais marjvena sanapiroze aRmoCenil samarxTa umetesoba [Куфтин Б. 1941:65-75], navTluRis ##1,3,4 samarxebi [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab.II94-96,102-105,116], sasireTisa [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. II140-149] da kavTisxevis ganZebi [qoriZe d. 1958, tab XXVII3-6]. Trelis samarovnis samarxTa didi nawili [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. II45-47,54,73,74] [abramiSvili r. 19803], werovnis #22 samarxi (ix. werovnis samarovani, tab.II), suramis [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. II, 51-53] , Curisxevis (ix. Curisxevis koleqcia), gostibes [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab.II48-50) koleqciebi, beSTaSenis #11 samarxi [Куфтин Б. 1941:69-72] da dvanis kompleqsi, romelSic brinjaos kaxuri tipis satevarTan erTad aRmoCenilia kolxuri tipis ornamentirebuli balTa [abramiSvili r. 1961:325-327].


aRmosavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze aRmoCenili kolxuri kulturisTvis damaxasiaTebeli nivTebis Semcveli kompleqsebidan gamomdinare (sasireTi, Curisxevi, gostibe, beSTaSeni, dvani) amave qronologiur jgufSi (Zv.w. XIIIs.-XIIs.-is I nax.) erTiandeba dasavleT saqarTvelos Zeglebi: lailaSis koleqcia [qoriZe d. 1965, nax.2], culebi zemo koWodan da zeniTidan [qoriZe d. 1965, nax.3,1-5,6-8].


kaxeTSi aRniSnul ZeglTa sinqronulia giorgiwmindas #4 samarxi (daculia saqarTvelos erovnul muzeumSi), axalSenisa (daculia saqarTvelos erovnul muzeumSi) da vanTis kompleqsebi  (ix. vanTis samarxi, tab. I), saTvaliswylis #8 da #15 samarxebi (ix. saTvaliswylis samarovani, tab. II, V), oliebis tyis samarovnis ##26,28,29 samarxebi (ix. oliebis tyis samarovani, tab. VII,IX,X). wiTelgorebis #1 yorRani (ix. wiTelgorebis yorRanebi, tab. III, IV) da sxva.


aRniSnul ZeglTa Tanadroulad somxeTSi abramiSvils miaCnia: artikis samarovnis samarxTa didi nawili [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. II149-152,158], gexarotis #1 [Мартиросян А. 1964, nax.43], makaraSenis #2 samarxebi [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab.II64,84,85,106,130, 153,154].

azerbaijanSi amave jgufis Tanadroulia: elenendorfis #1 yorRani [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab.II67-69,87-89,109,133,156,157] da ivanovskis mier gaTxrili samarxebi, romlebic Seicaven brinjaos Sedgeniltarian satevrebs [Ивановский А.1911]. saerTod, mocemuli qronologiuri jgufis Tanadroulia brinjaos yvela Sedgeniltariani da dabalqudiani mTlianadsxmuli  satevari.


rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, ficxelauris TvalsazrisiT kompleqsebi, romlebic Secavs brinjaos e.w. Sedgeniltarian satevrebs, samTavros foTliseburi satevrebis Tanadroulia [ficxelauri k. 1973:170-178].

brinjaos foTliseburi satevari da brinjaos aRmosavlurqarTuli (igive kaxuri) tipis Sedgeniltariani satevari sagangebo ganxilvis sagania, radgan qronologiur sistemaSi maTi adgilis gansazRvrasTan mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli samTavruli da lWaSen-wiTelgoruli arqeologiuri kulturebis qronologiuri urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxic.


foTliseburi satevari samTavruli kulturis ganmsazRvreli iaraRia, magram misi arseboba mTeli Sida qarTlis teritoriaze Tanadrouli ar aris. samTavros samarovanze foTliseburi satevari drois SedarebiT mokle monakveTSi arsebobs, xolo mis CrdiloeTiTa da dasavleTiT ufro didxans Zlebs (foTliseburi satevris gviandeli saxeebi _ sasireTi, surami).

SedarebiT didxans Zlebs foTliseburi satevari kolxuri da yobanuri kulturebis gavrcelebis teritoriazec. amitom, roca laparakia foTliseburi da Sedgeniltariani satevrebis qronologiuri urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxze, mxedvelobaSi unda gvqondes samTavros samarovanze aRmoCenili foTliseburi satevrebi da ara zogadad foTliseburi satevrebi, Tundac aRmosavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze mopovebulni.


kaxuri tipis Sedgeniltariani satevari Sida qarTlSi foTlisebursa da mTlianadsxmuls Soris gardamavlad moiazreba [CubiniSvili t. 1950:103, abramiSvili r. 1957:138, lomTaTiZe g. 1974:70-72]. aseT SemTxvevaSi ki bunebrivia, rom Sedgeniltariani satevari drois garkveul monakveTSi, rogorc foTliseburi, ise mTlianadsxmuli satevrebis sinqronulia. aseve SeuZlebelia, rom foTlisebur satevars da misi momdevno qronologiuri jgufisTvis damaxasiaTebel Sedgeniltarian satevars qronologiuri kontaqtebi ar hqonodaT (im faqts, rom ori momijnave qronologiuri jgufis gadakveTaze maTTvis damaxasiaTebeli nivTebi drois mokle monakveTSi Tanaarseboben, mtkiceba ar sWirdeba).


Sesabamisad, Sedgeniltarian satevrebTan vxvdebiT iseT nivTebs, romlebic ukve arseboben foTliseburi satevrebis Semcvel kompleqsebSi.

aseTi Sedgenilobis kompleqsebi: samTavros #44 samarxi-Tavxvia sakinZiTa da masragaxsnili SubispiriT (ix samTavros samarovani, tab. XXX), gostibes kompleqsi (ix. qvemo gostibes koleqcia, tab.I), navTluRis #1 samarxi (ix. navTluRis samarovani, tab.I), mkvlevarTa nawils foTliseburi da Sedgeniltariani satevrebis sinqronulobis sabuTad miaCnia [Пицхелаури К. 1969:174-185], nawils ki mTlianadsxmul satevrebTan SedarebiT Sedgeniltariani satevrebis adreulobis mtkicebulebad [abramiSvili r. 1957:138].


Sedgeniltariani satevrebis Semcvel kompleqsebSi, garda foTliseburi satevrebis Semcveli samarxebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli nivTebisa, gvxvdeba: sardionis eqvswaxnaga mZivebi _ vanTis samarxi (ix. vanTis samarxi, tab.I), saTvaliswylis #8 samarxi (ix. saTvaliswylis samarovani, tab. II), lWaSenis #2 yorRani; centraluramierkavkasiuri tipis culebi _ sasireTis ganZi (ix. qvemo sasireTis ganZi, tab. I),  navTluRis #1 samarxi (ix. navTluRis samarovani, tab. I), lWaSenis #1 yorRani [Мартиросян А. 1964, tab.IX1]  da   spilenZis furclisgan damzadebuli qvabi _ navTluRis #1 samarxi (ix. navTluRis samarovani, tab. I), orxevis kompleqsi [Akhvlediani N. 2003, tab. III3].


samTavros samarovanze foTliseburi satevrebis Semcveli fenis 70-mde samarxia gaTxrili. arcerT maTganSi ar aris aRmoCenili arc sardionis eqvswaxnaga mZivi, arc centraluramierkavkasiuri tipis culi da arc spilenZis furclisgan damzadebuli qvabi. Yyvela am nivTs, samTavros samarovanze mxolod foTliseburi satevrebis momdevno qronologiuri jgufis samarxebSi vxvdebiT. Aamitomac, is faqti, rom foTliseburi satevrebi win uswrebs Sedgeniltarian satevrebs udao unda iyos.


aRniSnul qronologiur jgufSi erTiandeba kavkasiaSi rkinis uadresi nivTebis Semcveli Zeglebic. esenia: beSTaSenis #13 samarxi (qvemo qarTli), Trelis #65 samarxi (Sida qarTli), werovnis #74 samarxi (Sida qarTli) da samTavros #56 samarxi (Sida qarTli). yvela am samarxSi aRmoCenilia rkinis dana. amaTgan beSTaSenis #13 samarxi TariRdeba Zv.w. XIVs. miwuruliT an XIV-XIIIss. mijnis axlo xanebiT [abramiSvili r. 1961:319], Trelis da werovnis samarxebi  Zv.w. XIIIs-iT [Abramishvili R. und M. 1995, Садрадзе В. 1991], samTavros #56 samarxi ki Zv.w. XIIs. II naxevriT TariRdeba [abramiSvili r. 1961:330] (rkinis fragmentia aRmoCenili berikldeebis #4 yorRanSi, romelic qronologiurad win uswrebs zemoT CamoTvlil Zeglebs da romelic aseve samTavruli kulturis arealSia moqceuli).


samTavros samarovnis Semdegi qronologiuri jgufis Zeglebi abramiSvilis sistemis mixedviT Zv.w. XII s.II nax-IXs. farglebSi eqceva. es qronologiuri jgufi moicavs or fenas, romlebic erTmaneTisgan gamijnulia SefardebiTi qronologiis moSveliebiT, rkinis nivTebis raodenobisa da ama Tu im nivTis tipologiuri ganviTarebis gaTvaliswinebiT.


aRniSnuli qronologiuri jgufidan (Zv.w. XIIs.II nax-IXs.) Zv.w. XIIs. II naxevrisa da Zv.w. Xs. I naxevris farglebSi eqceva brinjaos bolomomrgvalebuli, bolokveTili da bolowvetiani maxvilebis Semcveli samarxebi, romelTaganac ufro adreulia bolomomrgvalebuli maxvilebis Semcveli Zeglebi (Zv.w. XIIs. II naxevari). SedarebiT gviania bolokveTili maxvilebis Semcveli Zeglebi. sxva niSnebTan erTad amaze miuTiTebs isic, rom bolokveTili maxvilebi bolomomrgvalebul maxvilebTan SedarebiT ufro ganviTarebuli saxis iaraRia. [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. II12,13,17,20, 26].  samTavros am jgufis Tanadroulia vornakis #16 samarxi [Абрамишвили Р. 1978,tab. II5,6,27-31], xaStarakis kompleqsi [Абрамишвили Р.1978, tab.II1-3], redkinis banakis satevari [Мартиросян А.1964, tab. 7713] da musieris #472 samarxi [Morgan   J. 1889, nax. 70].


aRniSnuli jgufis Zeglebis absoluturi TariRis dasadgenad abramiSvili daeyrdno xmelTaSuazRvispireTidan momdinare im tipis fibulebs, romlebsac qr. blinkenbergi submikenurs uwodebs da Zv.w. XII-Xss. aTariRebs. abramiSvilis dakvirvebiT, fibulis is saxeoba, romliTac is gvxvdeba baiernis mier gaTxril samTavros #591 da #600 samarxebSi sruliad ucxoa mcire aziisTvis.

mcire aziaSi fibula farTo gavrcelebas povebs Zv.w. VIII s-Si. am teritoriaze arsebuli fibulebi berZnuli submikenuri fibulebis saxesxvaobas warmoadgens. wina aziaSi fibulebi gavrcelebulia Zv.w. XIIIs-dan, magram dasawyisSi es nivTebi gvxvdeba mxolod xmelTaSuazRvis aRmosavleT sanapiroze, aRmosavleTSi ki Zv.w. VIII s-Si vrceldeba [abramiSvili r. 1978].

sayuradReboa is faqtic, rom evropaSi submikenuri fibula icvlis Tavis formas, amierkavkasiaSi ki is inarCunebs Tavis pirvelsaxes, romelic hqonda berZnul xmelTaSuazRvispireTSi [Куфтин Б. 1944:316, abramiSvili r. 1957:136]. es ki imis damadasturebelia, rom es fibulebi egeosis zRvidan submikenuri fibulebis arsebobis periodSi gavrcelda.


blinkenbergi submikenur fibulebs Zv.w. XII-X ss. aTariRebs, magram berZnul fibulaTa is nairsaxeoba, romelic amierkavkasiaSi gavrcelda, TviT berZnul samyaroSi Zv.w. XIIs.-iT TariRdeba an  submikenur keramikasTan erTad gvxvdeba. submikenuri periodi ki Tavsdeba Zv.w. 1160-1050ww. Soris. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare abramiSvili submikenuri tipis fibulebis gavrcelebas saqarTvelos teritoriaze Zv.w. XII-XIss.-Si varaudobs. istoriuli viTarebis gaTvaliswinebiT ki am TariRs Zv.w. XII s.-iT akonkretebs [abramiSvili r. 1961:328-329, Abramishvili   R.  2003].


Zv.w. Xs. II naxevrisa da Zv.w. IXs. qronologiuri jgufis Zeglebi winamorbedi kompleqsebisgan ZiriTadad rkinis nivTebis meti raodenobiT gamoirCeva. imis gamo, rom amierkavkasiis sxvadasxva raionSi rkina erTdroulad da erTi tempiT ar vrceldeba aRniSnuli jgufis ZeglTa gamoyofa sakmaod rTuldeba da calkeul kompleqsTa daTariRebac ramdenadme pirobiTad unda CaiTvalos [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. II].


aRmosavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze aRniSnuli qronologiuri jgufis Tanadroulad avtors miaCnia: TrialeTSi, winwyaros samarovanze aRmoCenil samarxTa nawili [Куфтин Б. 1941:56-58,63], TrialeTis #3 yorRanis yrilSi mopovebuli qvayuTi, romelic Seicavs e.w. ganja-yarabaRuli tipis satevars, sof. kuSCis samarxebi, romelSic aRmoCnda brinjaostariani rkinis maxvili [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. II8]. [Куфтин Б. 1941:64], borjomsa da xaSurs Soris aRmoCenili rkinis satevris brinjaos tari [nioraZe g. 1944, tab.II],  Trelis samarovnis rkinis maxvilebis Semcveli samarxebi, romelTa forma imeorebs adgilobrivi brinjaos maxvilebis formas (samarxebi ##73,136,141. ix. Trelis gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis samarxebi, tab. XX-XXIV).


masalis simciris gamo Znelia Tvali gaedevnos ra viTarebaa kaxeTis teritoriaze. savaraudoa, rom ior-alaznis auzis kultura Zv.w. XII s.-is II naxevridan daaxloebiT Zv.w. VIII saukunemde met-naklebad erTgvarovania da rom brinjaos iaraRis mixedviT is garkveulad enaTesaveba somxeTis Crdilo-aRmosavleT nawilSi gavrcelebul kulturas.


amierkavkasiis sxva raionebidan am qronologiuri jgufis Tanadrouli Zeglebis gamoyofa SesaZlebeli gaxda samxreT-aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi, esenia: aligrixSi, anSi, da mxarTSi aRmoCenili maxvilebi orad gatotvili brinjaos saxelurebiT [Куфтин Б. 1941, sur. 592,60]. somxeTSi: makaraSenis qvayuTi [Мартиросян А. 1956:65, sur.3,4], stefanavanSi [Мартиросян А. 1956 :58, sur.7; Хачатрян Т. 1959 :105-112, nax. 38] da kirovakanSi mopovebuli rkinis satevrebi brinjaos salteebiT vadasTan da ganja-yarabaRuli tipis aJuruli brinjaos TaviT [Мартиросян А. 1956:66, nax.5], de morganis mier TaliSSi, jonisa da magudadares samarxebSi aRmoCenili rkinis maxvilebi da satevrebi [G. de Morgan, 1927 :269-271, nax. 251; Morgan   J. 1896, nax.565] [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. II8].


am droidan (Zv.w. Xs.II nax.-IXs.) samTavros samarovanze iwyeba rkinis farTo aTvisebis xana.

miuxedavad masalis simcirisa SeiZleba dabejiTebiT iTqvas, rom kavkasiaSi yvelaze adre rkinis farTo aTvisebis xana qvemo qarTlSi daiwyo (Zv.w. XIIs.). radgan am teritoriaze rkinis metalurgia Caisaxa ramdenime saukuniT adre, vidre kavkasiis danarCen raionebSi [abramiSvili r. 1961].


momdevno qronologiuri jgufis Zeglebis (Zv.w. VIIIs.-VII s. I naxevari) mixedviT aRniSnul  periodSi viTareba kvlav icvleba.  Trelis samarovnis masalebis mixedviT Tbilisis Crdilo-dasavleT teritoriaze, mtkvris marjvena sanapiroze iWreba axali eTnikuri jgufi, romlis kultura garkveul msgavsebas poulobs azerbaijanisa da CrdiloeT iranis teritoriaze gavrcelebul kulturebTan. (ix. Trelis gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis samarxebi, sam. #16 da #24, tab. XXXIV-LXXII, LXXIII- XC).


amave periodis (Zv.w. VIIIs.-VII s. I naxevari) samTavros masalebis mixedviT gansxvavebuli viTarebaa mcxeTis teritoriaze. aq aRmoCenili Zeglebi uaxloes paralelebs poulobs mis samxreTiT, qvemo qarTlsa da CrdiloeT somxeTSi aRmoCenil ZeglebTan (ix. samTavros samarovani, tab. XIV-XX). mTel zemoaRniSnul teritoriaze dawyebulia rkinis farTo aTvisebis xana. am mxriv gansxvavebuli viTarebaa kaxeTSi, sadac iaraRis dasamzadeblad jer kidev ZiriTadad brinjaos iyeneben.


aRmosavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze Zv.w. VIIIs.-VII s. I naxevris Zeglebi yvelaze kargad TariRdeba rkinis grZeli figurultariani maxvilebiT da maTi analogiuri satevrebiT [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. I75, 78,90,92-95, 97-98]. am maxvilebTan erTad ar gvxvdeba  skviTuri tipis isrispirebi, akinakebi, gvelisTaviani samajurebi, Sedgenileniani fibulebi, vercxlis sasafeTqle rgolebi da sayureebi da saerTod is nivTebi, romlebic ganmsazRvrelia momdevno qronologiuri jgufis (Zv.w. VIIs. II nax.-VIs.) daTariRebisTvis. samTavros samarovnis Zv.w. VIIIs.-VII s. I naxevris kompleqsebidan mxolod, erT-#14 samarxSi gvxvdeba momdevno qronologiuri jgufisTvis damaxasiaTebeli rkinis moxrili dana [abramiSvili r. 1957:133]. aRniSnuli kompleqsi am qronologiuri jgufis yvelaze gvian Zegls unda warmoadgendes.


samTavros samarovnis aRniSnul qronologiur jgufSi zemoT xsenebuli satevar-maxvilebis Semcveli kompleqsebis garda, aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi aRmoCenili Zeglebidan erTiandeba: narekvavis samarxebi, romlebic Seicaven rkinis danas da brinjaos lagmebs swori saybeurebiT [oqropiriZe n. 1963:211,217,218, tab. IX4,8,X2]; dmanisSi gaTxrili samarxebis didi nawili [nioraZe g. 1934, nioraZe g. 1947:56], saTovles samarxi [badriaSvili n. 1953:235-241], winwyaros [Куфтин Б. 1941:55-58], Taq-qilisas [Куфтин Б. 1941:63], wofis [abramiSvili r. 1961, tab.XVII1] maxvilebi da satevrebi. am droisa unda iyos axalcixeSi daculi rkinis satevari brinjaos tariT [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. I96].

aRmosavleT amierkavkasiaSi saqarTvelos gareT aRmoCenili Zeglebidan zemoT aRniSnuli Zeglebis sinqronulia: J. de morganis mier gaTxrili axtalisa da musieris samarovnebis didi nawili [abramiSvili r. 1957:55-61,64-69,71-73], p. lalaiancis mier sevanis tbaze nanaxi rkinis danebi da satevrebi (daculia saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumis s. janaSias sax. muzeumSi, kol. #64-05), eCmiaZinis muzeumis rkinis satevari [Мартиросян А. 1956:65, nax.3,4], mingeCauris amave tipis maxvilebis Semcveli samarxebi [Казиев С. 1951, Даниелян О.  1965] da sxva [Абрамишвили Р. 1978].


mingeCauris yorRanebisTvis terenoJkinis mier SemoTavazebuli TariRi [Тереножкин А. 1971] abramiSvilma marTebulad miiCnia [Abramishvili  R. 1995]  da radgan Trelis  #16,24 da 49 samarxebi (ix. Trelis gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis samarxebi, tab. XXXI-XXXIII, XXXIV-LXXIV, LXXV-XC) am yorRanebis Tanadrouli Zeglebia, amitom isini samTavros zemoT aRniSnuli qronologiuri jgufis Tanadroulebicaa (Trelis #49 samarxSi aRmoCenili brinjaos maxvilis analogiuri iaraRis TariRis Sesaxeb ix. tinis seris samarovani), mingeCauris #1 yorRanSi aRmoCenili brinjaos maxvilis taris [Асланов Г., Ваидов Р., Йоне Г.  1959, tab. XXXIX] analogiuri iaraRis TarRis Sesaxeb ix. TeTriwylebis samarovani).


dasavleT saqarTvelos Zeglebidan samTavros am qronologiuri jgufis (Zv.w. VIIIs. – VIIs. I naxevari) sinqronulia: paluris samarovanze aRmoCenili zusti analogi maxvilisa (masala ar aris gamoqveynebuli), romelic damaxasiaTebelia samTavros am jgufisTvis [Абрамишвили Р. 1978].

surmuSis ganZSi aRmoCenili brinjaos ornaxvretiani lagmebi, ornamentirebuli culi da cxenis aRkazmulobis konusuri balTebi [qoriZe d. 1965, nax. 28], lailaSis ganZi, romelic Seicavda grexilReroian lagmebs da cxenis aRkazmulobis konusisebur balTebs [qoriZe d. 1965, nax. 21] da nigozeTis kmpleqsi (daculia saqarTvelos erovnul muzeumSi) [Абрамишвили Р. 1978].

surmuSis culi formiTa da ornamentiT axlos dgas am qronologiuri jufis samTavros #121 samarxis brinjaos kolxur culTan. surmuSis ganZi masSi aRmoCenili ornaxvretiani lagmebis mixedviT kargad TariRdeba Zv.w. VIII-VIIss-iT [Иессен А. 1953:102-104].


am qronologiuri jgufis Tanadrouli unda iyos Tlias samarovnis brinjaos satevrebi, romelTa taric samTavros samarovnis Zv.w. VIII-VII ss. rkinis satevrebis brinjaos tarebis analogiuria. b. texovi am satevrebs usafuZvlod akuTvnebs erT SemTxvevaSi Zv.w. XII-Xss. qronologiur jgufs [Техов Б. 1972, nax.1, #151], xolo meore SemTxvevaSi  Zv.w. X-IXss. [Техов Б. 1972, nax. 2, #176].

cxenis aRkazmulobis konusiseburi balTebis mixedviT amave jgufs unda ekuTvnodes eSeris kompleqsi, romelic saqarTvelos erovnul muzeumSia daculi [Абрамишвили Р. 1978].


aRniSnuli periodi samTavros samarovnis masalebis mixedviT rkinis farTo aTvisebis xanis meore safexurs ganekuTvneba [abramiSvili r. 1961:368-372], xolo lailaSis, nigozeTis, surmuSis da Tlias samarxTa kompleqsebis mixedviT amierkavkasiis mTian da mTiswina zonaSi, iseve rogorc kaxeTSi, jer kidev farTod iyeneben brinjaos iaraRs.


amierkavkasiaSi samTavros samarovnis yvelaze gviani qronologiuri jgufis (Zv.w.VIIs. IInax.-VIs., samTavros samarovnis qronologiuri sistemis I jgufi r. abramiSvilis mixedviT) ZiriTad damaTariRebel nivTebs e.w. skviTuri nivTebi warmoadgens. garda skviTuri nivTebisa am qronologiuri jgufisTvis damaxasiaTebelia rkinis farTopiriani maxvilebi, moxrili danebi, brinjaos Sedgenileniani fibulebi, samajurebi, romelTa boloebze gvelis Tavia gamosaxuli, vercxlis sasafeTqle rgolebi da sayureebi, giSrisa da qarvis mZZivebi da sxva [abramiSvili r. 1957:131].


Sida qarTlSi samTavros I qronologiuri jufis sinqronuli Zeglebia: skviTuri isrispirebis Semcveli Trelis #64 samarxi [Абрамишвили Р. 1978, tab. I20-25]. Tlias samarovnis #85,164,246 samarxebi rkinis akinakebiT [Техов Б. 1972, nax. 2231-245, 287-289, 321-328; Техов Б. 1985, nax.168], #129 samarxi rkinis akinakiT da brinjaos skviTuri isrispirebiT [Техов Б. 1972, nax. 2268-279, Техов Б. 1985,nax.131], samarxebi #93,139,205,216 rkinis akinakebiTa da culebiT [Техов Б. 1972, nax.2303-307,313-320, Техов Б. 1985, nax.117, 135,157,159], samarxi #268 rkinis akinakiT, brinjaos uzangiseburi lagmiT da Zvlis saybeurebiT [Техов Б. 1972, nax. 2, 280-286], samarxi #258 zoomorfuli bunikis TaviT [Техов Б. 1985,nax.174], #90, 103 samarxebi rkinis moxrili danebiT [Техов Б. 1972, nax. 2308-312, 324-326, Техов Б. 1985,nax. 114,120] da sxva [Абрамишвили Р. 1978].

Tlias samarovnis samarxTa is nawili, romelic texovma Zv.w. VIIIs.-VII s. I naxevris qronologiur jgufSi moaTavsa, mocemul qronologiur jgufSi unda Sevides, radgan xSirad im jgufis Zeglebi Zv.w. VIIs. II naxevrisa da VIs. samarxTa masalebis identuria [Техов Б. 1972:30-33, nax.2].


Sida qarTlis Zeglebidan amave qronologiur jgufSi  abramiSvili aqcevs wiwamurTan gaTxril samarxs, romelSic skviTuri isrispirebi aRmoCnda [Куфтин Б. 1941, sur.4 Ia-2], dvanis samarovnis #1 da #7 samarxebs vercxlis sasafeTqle rgolebiT [makalaTia s. 1948:8,27, tab.I,VI], #4 samarxs analogiuri sasafeTqle rgolebiTa da brinjaos qarqaSiT [makalaTia s. 1948:9,23,27, tab.III], #2 samarxs rkinis akinakiT, Zvlisa da skviTuri tipis brinjaos isrispiriT [makalaTia s. 1948:2, tab.II], #5 samarxs, romelSic aRmoCnda rkinis moxril dana da brinjaos Sedgenileniani fibula [makalaTia s. 1948:9-10, tab. IV], #11 samarxs, romelSic aRmoCnda rkinis akinaki, culi da skviTuri isrispirebi [makalaTia s. 1948:12-14, tab.IX-X], rusTavis #16 samarxs skviTuri isrispirebiT [lomTaTiZe g. 1955, tab. X2,4-6], zemolisis samarovnis #3 samarxs rkinis moxrili daniT da #14 samarxs rkinis moxrili daniT da brinjaos Sedgenileniani fibuliT. amave periods unda ekuTvnodes am samarovnis sxva samarxebic  [jafariZe o. 1957:183-184,189,nax.2,7,8] da xovlegoris III da IV fenebis masalaTa nawili [musxeliSvili d. 1978:34 da Semdegi, tab.IX1-3].


aRniSnul qronologiur jgufSi Sedis yornisSi [Куфтин Б. 1949 :27, nax. 77], rusTavSi (znauris raioni) da orbeTSi aRmoCenili skviTuri tipis isrispirebi [Техов Б. 1971, nax.77] da narekvavSi aRmoCenili rkinis moxrili danebi, akinakebi da culebi [oqropiriZe n. 1963:211-213, tab.X1].


samTavros samarovnis I qronologiuri jgufis Tanadrouli Zeglebi qvemo qarTlSi aRmoCenilia Semdeg adgilebSi: beSTaSenis samarovnis samarxTa nawili [Куфтин Б. 1941; davlianiZe c. 1968:107], manglisis samarovnis samarxebi [meliqseT-begi 1927:82-87], ganTiadis qvayuTebi #1-7 [avaliSvili g. 1974:65-74, 92-94, tab.VII-XIV], Sulaveris #4 yorRanis samarxi skviTuri isrispirebiT [avaliSvili g. 1975:170], wofis qvayuTebi da qvayriliani samarxebi [abramiSvili r. 1958:172-178], RrmaxevisTavis samarovnis qvayuTi #6 skviTuri isrispirebiT da sxva misi Tanadrouli samarxebi [abramiSvili r. kaxiani k. 1980].


zemo qarTlis Zeglebidan aRniSnuli qronologiuri jgufis sinqronulia: axalcixis raionSi napovni skviTuri isrispirebi, romlebic moskovis istoriul muzeumSi inaxeba da CiTaxevis samarovnis gviani jgufi [Абрамишвили Р. 1978].


kaxeTSi aRmoCenili Zeglebidan aRniSnul jgufs ekuTvnis: TelavSi aRmoCenili ganZi [abramiSvili r. 1961, tab. XX2], melaanis samlocvelos teritoriaze napovni skviTuri tipis isrispirebi (ix.melaanis samlocvelo) da meli-eles samlocvelos gviani fenebi (ix.meli-Reles samlocvelo).


somxeTSi aRmoCenil ZeglTagan samTavros samarovnis I qronologiuri jgufis sinqronulia: vornakis #5 samarxi, romelSic aRmoCnda brinjaos qarqaSiani farTopiriani maxvili, rkinis satevari da dana, brinjaos samajurebi boloebze gvelis Tavis gamosaxulebiT da Sedgenileniani fibula [Пиотровский Б. 1949, Мартиросян А. 1954], SaiTan-daRis #4,38,43 samarxebi [Morgan   J. 1889,nax.11-12], axtalis #46 samarxi [Morgan   J. 1889,nax. 25-26], musieris #134,242 samarxebi [Мартиросян А. 1954] da saerTod J. de morganis mier gaTxrili lelvaris samarovnis samarxTa umetesi nawili. amave periods ekuTvnis golovinosTan gaTxrili da xrtanocis kromlexebi [Мартиросян А. 1954],  erebunis samarovnis samarxebi [Мартиросян А. 1964:240-244, tab. XXIII, XXIV, Оганесян К. 1968:60], makaraSenis gviani samarxebi da sxva [Мартиросян А. 1964:286,289, tab. XXX, XXXI; Оганесян К. 1968:60] [Абрамишвили Р. 1978].


azerbaijanSi aRmoCenili Zeglebidan aRniSnuli qronologiuri jgufis sinqronulia mingeCaurSi gaTxrili adreuli skviTuri isrispirebis Semcveli samarxebi  [Казиев С. 1949:20,21; Йоне Г. 1953:81-83], ivanovskis mier gaTxrili samarxi #48 skviTuri isrispirebiTa da ganja-yarabaRuli tipis satevriT, samarxi #67 rkinis moxrili danebiT, #62 da 81 samarxebi, romlebSic rkinis xiStiseburi iaraRi aRmoCnda [Ивановский А. 1911, tab. V4,7,8, tab. VIII35,36] da sxva [Абрамишвили Р. 1978].


dasavleT saqarTveloSi samTavros samarovnis I qronologiuri jgufis Tanadrouli Zeglebia: merxeulis samarovani [baramiZe m. 1977], paluris samarxebi #43,46,48,64 [baramiZe m. 1977, tab. VI-VII], nigvzianis samarovani [baramiZe m. 1977, tab. VIII], yulanurxvas samarxi #5 [Трапш М. 1970:109,110,125, tab.VI], wiTeli Suquras samarovnis samarxebi [Трапш М. 1969:91,181, tab.XIX9], sof. kolxeTis kompleqsi [Трапш М. 1970, nax.20], Cobanlukis akinaki [Воронов Ю. 1968:48, tab. XXXIX2] da brilis samarovnis kremaciuli samarxebi [gobejiSvili g. 1952, tab.XIII,XIV,XVII] [Абрамишвили Р. 1978].

aRniSnuli qronologiuri jgufis Zeglebis garCevisas gairkva, rom amierkavkasiisTvis es aris rkinis farTi aTvisebis periodi da am dros rkina iyo erTaderTi liToni, romlisganac iaraRs amzadebdnen (isrispirebis garda). sxva liTonisgan damzadebuli iaraRi mxolod gamonaklisis saxiT gvxvdeba. aseTebia: brinjaos culi samTavros samarovnis #195 samarxidan da ornamentirebuli brinjaos culebi Tlias samarovnidan. kompleqsebi, romlebic am culebs Seicavs aRniSnuli qronologiuri jgufis adreul periods unda ekuTvnodes.


Zv.w. VI saukunidan rkina saqarTveloSi da saerTod mTel kavkasiaSi sabolood devnis brinjaos rogorc iaraRis dasamzadebel masalas.

  



   

































                                                





                                                                          

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